The most common type of corneal transplant is where the central corneal is replaced and this can be further divided into one of three types, depending on which layers are replaced. Only the corneal transplantation where the central cornea is replaced is addressed here.
The cornea has been provided by a volunteer donor who has passed away and given permission for its use. Both the donated cornea and patient donating the cornea undergo intensive assessments. The donated cornea itself is examined to ensure that it is clear, examined under high magnification to ensure that the endothelial cell count is of adequate density and further tested to ensure that it is free of infection. An assessment is also made of the donor patient to ensure they have no evidence of significant infection or other pertinent illness. Modern techniques allow the cornea to be kept healthy for up to four weeks before transplantation.
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